Qinghai bandits - from Chase to Qaidam

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Qian Zhi'an (1917—) Miao, from Laifeng County, Hubei. In 1935, he joined the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in Longshan County, Hunan Province, and experienced a 25,000-mile long march. He successively served as a soldier of the 6th Division of the Second Army Corps, a youth officer, the head of the organization unit of the Political Department of the regiment, and the political commissar of the 358th Brigade Instruction Brigade of the Eighth Route Army. In 1948, he became the commander of the teaching regiment, the commander of the cavalry regiment and the political commissar. In 1958, he was promoted to deputy division commander, in 1963 he was appointed commander of Henan Xinyang Military Subdistrict, in 1965 he was appointed deputy chief of staff of Henan Provincial Military District, in 1969 he was appointed deputy commander of Henan Provincial Military District (deputy ministerial level), and in 1970 he was appointed deputy director of the logistics department of Wuhan Military Region.

In December 1950, the party, government, military and people of Datong County mourned the martyrs who died in battle and the scene of the people's congress of all ethnic groups.

On September 9, 1949, Datong County of Xining City was liberated, and on the 15th, the People's Government of Datong County was established. On December 5 (the 16th day of the 10th lunar month), Ma Ying, former commander of the 8th Brigade of Ma Bufang's 129th Army, colluded with the bully landlords Ye Shenghua, Ma Hongji, Ma Yaowu, Ma Zhanqing and others in Xinzhuang, Tar, Chengguan, and other places to launch a premeditated and planned counterrevolutionary armed riot in Datong County and adjacent areas, namely the Datong October Banditry. On December 14, the People's Government of Datong County issued a successful report on the fight against bandits. In just over ten days, under the leadership of the CPC Datong County Party Committee and the County People's Government, the people of all ethnic groups in Datong County worked together to actively cooperate with the People's Liberation Army in fighting heroically, quickly quelling the banditry and returning to tranquility.


In December 1949, in order to completely and quickly eliminate the bandits who were wandering around Qinghai, He Bingyan, commander of the 1st Army, and Liao Hansheng, political commissar, decided to form a cavalry regiment, with Qian Zhi'an as the regiment commander and political commissar, Zhou Long as the deputy regiment commander, Sun Gong as the chief of staff, and Dai Chunshan as the director of the Political Department. In their conversations, the chiefs instructed that each of the three divisions should form a cavalry battalion, and that the regiment would be composed of organs directly under the army. The time for selecting and appointing personnel from divisions, administrations, and post-ordinaries shall not exceed five days.

Qian Zhi'an felt that the task was arduous and time was urgent, and he was afraid that he would not be able to complete the task. He Bingyan criticized Qian Zhi'an for taking the lead in bargaining, and then said categorically: "The task must not only be completed, but also completed well, and if it is not done well, first beat your ass." ”

On December 19, the cavalry regiment was formed as scheduled. On January 17, 1950, it entered Shangwuzhuang, Huangzhong County. This is a Hui settlement area, backed by the mountains, straight to the grassland, can be attacked, retreated and defended, and has a wide room for maneuver.

The commander of the army ordered the cavalry regiment to strictly implement the ethnic policy, respect national customs and habits, not enter mosques, not shoot prisoners, and do more arduous and meticulous mass work to gain a firm foothold before it could talk about completing the task of suppressing bandits.

The regiment has 2,127 people, more than 3,200 military horses, and the regiment has 3 battalions, each with 4 companies. The outstanding characteristics of the cavalry regiment are that the regiment is large, has a large number of people, and is an old qualification, and it is a combat force that poses a great threat to the enemy. Most of the leading cadres of the regiment were the old Red Army or the "38-style" and "39-style" who participated in the revolution in the early days of the Anti-Japanese Resistance, and some company cadres still went through the Long March.

After the cavalry regiment entered Shangwuzhuang, the bandits hated it to the bone and tried in every possible way to bring down the cavalry regiment. The slogan they put forward was: rot the 1st Army in Qinghai, and rot the Cavalry Regiment in Shangwuzhuang. Therefore, when the troops arrived in Shangwuzhuang, one trap after another was set by the enemy.

When the cavalry regiment first arrived, there were two lives in the people, and some ears could not hear the foreign affairs of the battalion, and some eyes could not recognize good and bad people. Some high-level figures sometimes give some wind and send some information, which is also discussed with the bandits in advance. The cavalry regiments carried out the "clues" provided by them, repeatedly pounced in the air, dragged the troops to a very tired time, and caused the troops to complain to each other.

When the enemy's trick was gradually discovered by the cavalry regiment, they changed their methods and adopted the means of attacking in a vain attempt to disintegrate our cavalry regiment from within.

Xie Yingsheng, a major general instructor of the Kuomintang Northwest Military and Political Governor's Office, studied at the People's Liberation Officer Training Office for a period after liberation and was assigned to the cavalry regiment. He pretended to be active on the surface, but he was extremely reactionary in his bones, often stealing our army's intelligence and sending it to the enemy, and also had close ties with Ma Deshan, secretary general of the "Northwest Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang" formed by the rebels and adjutant of the pseudo-82nd Army.

The commander of the Green Horse Company successfully entered the cavalry regiment as a staff officer after being introduced by a senator in the Senate Office of the Military Region. He often sought opportunities in the cavalry regiment to contact the bandits and according to the enemy's will, sent false information to the cavalry regiment and lured the cavalry regiment to take the bait. At one time, the enemy wanted to go to the Ula brain beach to pick up grain. However, he said that the bandits were going to attack Doba, and used the plan of moving the tiger away from the mountain to lead the cavalry regiment away to facilitate the bandits.

Jiang Fade, deputy commander of the Lieutenant Colonel of the 248th Division of Qingma, came to the cavalry regiment as an instructor after studying at the PLA Officer Training Department. However, he still maintained close contact with Ma Deshan and waited for the opportunity to go to Lanzhou to form a series with the bandit leader Yehu, and plotted to go to Tibet to plan a riot.

While actively penetrating into the interior of our army, the enemy also resorted to beauty tactics in an attempt to undermine the fighting spirit of our army.

One day, when the commander of the 1st Company of the Cavalry Regiment was patrolling the camp at night, he was held back by a woman who was instructed by the bandits, and was immediately severely reprimanded. The squad leader of the 2nd company went to Zanazhuang to carry out a mission, but on the way, he was intercepted by a woman and locked up in the house and forced to sleep with him, and the squad leader took the opportunity to escape through the window. There are many similar things, and some of them have weakened their will, been hit by the enemy's sugar-coated shells, and dragged into the water. The struggle was complex and sharp, and the regiment leaders promptly took advantage of these living facts of the struggle to conduct anti-corrosion education for commanders and fighters, smashed one conspiracy after another of the enemy, and gained a firm foothold in Shangwuzhuang.

In mid-August 1950, Ma Deshan led 4500 bandits from Menyuan to Chase. Along the road, the bandits were ordered to shoot when they saw our cavalry, and kill all the activists when they saw them. On 12 August, after the communications brigade to which he belonged killed Deng Youcai, a local cadre and four other comrades, in the northern district of Datong District, he sneaked to Mutsu County to brutalize the people.

The cavalry regiment received a briefing from the military headquarters at Youning Temple, and immediately received an order to act, and when the troops quickly set out to reach Huzhu County, it was already dark. In order not to expose its target, the cavalry regiment avoided the city and detoured to the mouth of Da Moer Gou, where he happened to meet a cadre of the peasant association who reported the enemy situation to the county party committee, and because he was familiar with the situation, the cavalry regiment asked him to lead the way back to Xiao Moer Gou. Not far into the ditch, he met the rebels. The commanders and fighters swung their knives on their horses, rushed into the bandits, slashed left and right, and were unstoppable. The enemy suffered heavy casualties, abandoned tents and other things, and fled in a hurry. The soldiers clung to the bandits, chased them fiercely, and finally pressed the enemy into a ravine and annihilated most of it.

Just when Ma Deshan was cornered and waiting to die, suddenly heavy rain fell and the troops were unable to move, so Ma Deshan, who saw that he was captured alive, took the opportunity to take the opportunity to escape with 13 bandits.

In this battle, a total of 114 bandits were killed. Ma Wenying, Ma Zhen, and more than 300 bandits, commanders of the security cavalry directly under the headquarters of the anti-communist National Salvation Army, captured 2 machine guns, 62 long and short guns, and 136 mules and horses.

Lu Guozo and Lu Shunde from Wayao Village in the seventh district of Mutsu County are another vicious bandit. Lu Guozuo was once the captain of Ma Bufang's guard brigade, and Lu Shunde was a notorious bully landlord. After liberation, the uncle and nephew successively gathered the bandits to start riots, and served as the commander of the cavalry regiment of the Huangbei Column of the "Anti-Communist National Salvation Army", and they often operated in the areas of Mutual Aid, Datong, Menyuan, and Yongdeng on the border of Gansu and Qinghai, burning, killing, and plundering. In June 1950, Lu Shunde killed 15 of our fighters in Songduo Township, Mutual Aid District 8; Lu Guozo has clashed with our army and public security forces more than 20 times.

In order to eliminate this enemy, Zhou Long, deputy commander of the cavalry regiment, was ordered to lead the 1st battalion to station and assist each other, responsible for clearing and suppressing. Soon after the troops arrived at mutual aid, they discovered the bandits: more than 80 bandits in Lushunde were doing evil in the area of Wupugou where mutual aid was going. The military and political leaders decided that Wu Zhengfu, the magistrate of Huzhu County, would lead a small number of local armed forces to cooperate with the 1st Battalion to eliminate the bandits.

After a night of rapid marching, everyone arrived at Wupugou in the northeast of mutual aid before dawn the next day (editor's note: the original text is so, some netizens suggested that it should be Yuanpugou). When the bandits woke up, they were already turtles in an urn, and their hands were captured. Only the cunning Lu Shunde took the opportunity to sneak out of the house, ride a bareback horse and escape.

In the early morning of August 29, Lu Shunde, hungry and exhausted from wandering, had just returned home to catch his breath when his son and brother-in-law reported to my food collection team. The comrades of the task force immediately organized militia to surround his home, where they were killed on the spot by our militia.

Lu Guozo is much more cunning and stubborn than his uncle, and although I have been chasing and cracking down continuously, he still wanders around and does evil. On February 7, 1950, I helped Bakong in District 8 (Editor's note: the original text is so, some netizens suggested that it should be Bazaar), Jiading, Gan Chan and other township militias surrounded him in Qila Gou (Editor's note: The original text is so, some netizens suggested that it should be Kolagou) and killed.

* The problem of geographical names is estimated to be the rearrangement of the original book and the transliteration of ethnic groups. Map verification estimates should be Yuanfu Gou, Bazaar, and Gala Gou. Not sure if this is the case, there are local informed, trouble to leave a message in the comment area.

On January 28, 1951, military and political commissar Liao Hansheng came to Wuzhuang to inspect the cavalry regiment with great interest, and ordered the cavalry regiment to go to Qaidam to cooperate with the fraternal troops to eliminate Hussein, Usman, and other bandits who had sneaked into the Qilian Mountains and other areas from Xinjiang.

Hu and the bandits are very cunning. When the cavalry regiment arrived in Touraine on February 2, the bandit leader Hussein sent a dozen people, disguised as merchants, to spy on our army's intelligence. After these businessmen were captured by our local armed forces, they were deceived by their rhetoric because the person in charge of the United Front Work Department of the provincial party committee did not know the truth, and released five people. When Qian Zhi'an learned about it, he sent a platoon to make a detour to pursue, but it was too late, and after they reported to Hussein about our march and suppression, Hussein immediately led the bandits to escape.

On another occasion, when the cavalry regiment returned to camp from the foothills of the Kunlun Mountains, it encountered Hussein's son and seven family members, who falsely claimed to have come to surrender. The cavalry regiment believed their lies, treated them with courtesy, and sent a deputy instructor and Kazakh guide Zaken to accompany them back to the camp, but the deputy instructor was killed by them halfway, and the guide Zaken also fled with the enemy. The painful lesson made the cavalry regiment increase its wisdom and sum up experience. Later, in the pursuit of the remnants of the bandits, he was cautious everywhere and fought several victories.

Qaidam is barren and vast, with complex terrain and harsh climate. Killing bandits here is like finding a needle in a haystack. It is necessary not only to fight wits and courage with the enemy, but also to overcome the difficulties that nature brings. In the foothills of the Kunlun Mountains, due to the high cold and lack of oxygen, the war horse just gasped and foamed, not to mention riding, even if it was led, it could not walk. When crossing the salt lake, the horse's hooves were all rotten. The comrades were reluctant to ride, so they pulled along.

In the Gobi wilderness, there was no firewood and grass to boil water, so everyone used cold water to mix fried noodles to fill their hunger, and without a pot stove, they ate flapjacks on bluestone slabs. With strong perseverance, we have overcome many difficulties. Later, together with the cavalry regiments of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th armies and a camel brigade from Xinjiang, they captured the bandit leader Usman on 29 February at the junction of Qaidam and Gansu, and won a victory in suppressing bandits in the Qaidam area.


1. "Panorama of the Liberation War"

2. They guard the tranquility of the Western Frontier